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12 Things Every Catholic Should know And Share About The Assumption Of Mary 

12 Things Every Catholic Should know And Share About The Assumption Of Mary 

August 15 is the Solemnity of the Assumption of Mary. Here are 12 things to know and share…

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In the United States, the Solemnity of the Assumption of Mary is a holy day of obligation (in years when it does not fall on a Monday).

What is the Assumption of Mary, how did it come to be defined, and what relevance does it have for our lives?

Here are 12 things to know and share … 

1) What is the Assumption of Mary?

The Assumption of Mary is the teaching that:

The Immaculate Mother of God, the ever Virgin Mary, having completed the course of her earthly life, was assumed body and soul into heavenly glory [Pius XIIMunificentissimus Deus 44].

2) What level of authority does this teaching have?

This teaching was infallibly defined by Pope Pius XII on November 1, 1950 in the bull Munificentissimus Deus (Latin, “Most Bountiful God”).

As Pius XII explained, this is “a divinely revealed dogma” (ibid.).

This means that it is a dogma in the proper sense. It is thus a matter of faith that has been divinely revealed by God and that has been infallibly proposed by the Magisterium of the Church as such.

3) Does that mean it is an “ex cathedra” statement and that we have to believe it?

Yes. Since it is a dogma defined by the Pope (rather than by an ecumenical council, for example), it is also an “ex cathedra” statement (one delivered “from the chair” of Peter).

Because it is infallibly defined, it calls for the definitive assent of the faithful.

Pope John Paul II explained:

The definition of the dogma, in conformity with the universal faith of the People of God, definitively excludes every doubt and calls for the express assent of all Christians [General Audience, July 2, 1997].

Note that all infallibly defined teachings are things we are obliged to believe, even if they aren’t defined “ex cathedra” (by the pope acting on his own).

The bishops of the world teaching in union with the pope (either in an ecumenical council or otherwise) can also infallibly define matters, but these aren’t called “ex cathedra” since that term refers specifically to the exercise of the Pope’s authority as the successor of St. Peter. (It’s Peter’s cathedra or “chair” that symbolizes the pope’s authority).

4) Does the dogma require us to believe that Mary died?

It is the common teaching that Mary did die. In his work, Fundamentals of Catholic Dogma, Ludwig Ott lists this teaching as sententia communior (Latin, “the more common opinion”).

Although it is the common understanding of the Church, that Mary did die, and although her death is referred to in some of the sources Pius XII cited in Munificentissimus Deus, he deliberately refrained from defining this as a truth of the faith.

John Paul II noted:

On 1 November 1950, in defining the dogma of the Assumption, Pius XII avoided using the term “resurrection” and did not take a position on the question of the Blessed Virgin’s death as a truth of faith.

The Bull Munificentissimus Deus limits itself to affirming the elevation of Mary’s body to heavenly glory, declaring this truth a “divinely revealed dogma.”

5) Why should Mary die if she was free from Original Sin and its stain?

Being free of Original Sin and its stain is not the same thing as being in a glorified, deathless condition.

Jesus was also free of Original Sin and its stain, but he could—and did—die.

Expressing a common view among theologians, Ludwig Ott writes:

For Mary, death, in consequence of her freedom from original sin and from personal sin, was not a consequence of punishment of sin.

However, it seems fitting that Mary’s body, which was by nature mortal, should be, in conformity with that of her Divine Son, subject to the general law of death.

6) What are the earliest surviving references to Mary’s Assumption?

John Paul II noted:

The first trace of belief in the Virgin’s Assumption can be found in the apocryphal accounts entitled Transitus Mariae [Latin, “The Crossing Over of Mary”], whose origin dates to the second and third centuries.

These are popular and sometimes romanticized depictions, which in this case, however, pick up an intuition of faith on the part of God’s People.

7) How did the recognition of Mary’s Assumption develop in the East?

John Paul II noted:

There was a long period of growing reflection on Mary’s destiny in the next world.

This gradually led the faithful to believe in the glorious raising of the Mother of Jesus, in body and soul, and to the institution in the East of the liturgical feasts of the Dormition [“falling asleep”—i.e., death] and Assumption of Mary.

8) How did Pius XII prepare for the definition of the Assumption?

John Paul II noted:

In May 1946, with the Encyclical Deiparae Virginis Mariae, Pius XII called for a broad consultation, inquiring among the Bishops and, through them, among the clergy and the People of God as to the possibility and opportuneness of defining the bodily assumption of Mary as a dogma of faith.

The result was extremely positive: only six answers out of 1,181 showed any reservations about the revealed character of this truth.

9) What Scriptural basis is there for the teaching?

John Paul II noted:

Although the New Testament does not explicitly affirm Mary’s Assumption, it offers a basis for it because it strongly emphasized the Blessed Virgin’s perfect union with Jesus’ destiny.

This union, which is manifested, from the time of the Savior’s miraculous conception, in the Mother’s participation in her Son’s mission and especially in her association with his redemptive sacrifice, cannot fail to require a continuation after death.

Perfectly united with the life and saving work of Jesus, Mary shares his heavenly destiny in body and soul.

There are, thus, passages in Scripture that resonate with the Assumption, even though they do not spell it out.

10) What are some specific Old Testament passages?

Pope Pius XII pointed to several passages that have been legitimately used in a “rather free” manner to explain belief in the Assumption (meaning: these passages resonate with it in various ways, but they don’t provide explicit proof):

Often there are theologians and preachers who, following in the footsteps of the holy Fathers, have been rather free in their use of events and expressions taken from Sacred Scripture to explain their belief in the Assumption.

Thus, to mention only a few of the texts rather frequently cited in this fashion, some have employed the words of the psalmist:

“Arise, O Lord, into your resting place: you and the ark, which you have sanctified” (Ps. 131:8);

and have looked upon the Ark of the Covenant, built of incorruptible wood and placed in the Lord’s temple, as a type of the most pure body of the Virgin Mary, preserved and exempt from all the corruption of the tomb and raised up to such glory in heaven.

Treating of this subject, they also describe her as the Queen entering triumphantly into the royal halls of heaven and sitting at the right hand of the divine Redeemer (Ps. 44:10-14ff).

Likewise they mention the Spouse of the Canticles “that goes up by the desert, as a pillar of smoke of aromatical spices, of myrrh and frankincense” to be crowned (Song 3:6; cf. also 4:8, 6:9).

These are proposed as depicting that heavenly Queen and heavenly Spouse who has been lifted up to the courts of heaven with the divine Bridegroom [Munificentissimus Deus 26]. 

11) What are some specific New Testament passages?

Pius XII continued:

Moreover, the scholastic Doctors have recognized the Assumption of the Virgin Mother of God as something signified, not only in various figures of the Old Testament, but also in that woman clothed with the sun whom John the Apostle contemplated on the Island of Patmos (Rev. 12:1ff).

Similarly they have given special attention to these words of the New Testament: “Hail, full of grace, the Lord is with you, blessed are you among women”(Luke 1:28), since they saw, in the mystery of the Assumption, the fulfillment of that most perfect grace granted to the Blessed Virgin and the special blessing that countered the curse of Eve [Munificentissimus Deus 27].

12) How can we apply this teaching to our everyday lives?

According to Pope Benedict XVI:

By contemplating Mary in heavenly glory, we understand that the earth is not the definitive homeland for us either, and that if we live with our gaze fixed on eternal goods we will one day share in this same glory and the earth will become more beautiful.

Consequently, we must not lose our serenity and peace even amid the thousands of daily difficulties. The luminous sign of Our Lady taken up into Heaven shines out even more brightly when sad shadows of suffering and violence seem to loom on the horizon.

We may be sure of it: from on high, Mary follows our footsteps with gentle concern, dispels the gloom in moments of darkness and distress, reassures us with her motherly hand.

Supported by awareness of this, let us continue confidently on our path of Christian commitment wherever Providence may lead us. Let us forge ahead in our lives under Mary’s guidance [General Audience, August 16, 2006].

Feast Of The Assumption Of The Blessed Virgin Mary – August 15

Feast Of The Assumption Of The Blessed Virgin Mary – August 15

The Assumption of The Blessed Virgin Mary.

Rev
12 v 1

“And a great sign appeared in heaven, a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars.”



Dear Faithful, today August 15th, the Catholic Faithful all over the earth celebrates together this glorious Feast Day of Our Lady, in commemoration of Her (Our Lady’s) Glorious Assumption Into Heaven.

Since the very beginning of The Church, the remains of those who had died in The Lord were lovingly gathered; sometimes at great risk of life. The Catacombs in Rome is such a place, where the remains or bones of those who had died were kept; and from the beginning The Faithful would meet there to pray for the souls of the departed and to offer The Holy Sacrifice of The Mass on behalf of their souls. The martyrs and those who had lived exemplary holy lives were believed to be already in Heaven and The Faithful would gather before their relics to implore their intercession from Heaven. This is evidenced not only in writings that survive to this day but also in the graffiti on the walls of the catacombs in Rome.  

The relics of countless Saints and Martyrs are with us today in Churches throughout the earth. Especially precious to us are the holy relics of The Apostles.
*But dear Faithful Catholic, you may travel the world OVER…. and you will never ever find ONE single relic of The Blessed Virgin Mary.

NOT ONE.

and that’s because there ARE none!

And don’t you think, dear reader, this to be an ASTONISHING fact, considering how The Early Church risked life and limb to lovingly gather up the remains of The Apostles and Martyrs to venerate them?

WHY then, are there no earthly remains of The Blessed Virgin Mary, Jesus’ own Dear Mother?

The Answer is simple and clear: because She was ASSUMED BODY and SOUL into HEAVEN.

I. The Sacred Scriptures 

We began this message today with the passage from Revelation that show Our Blessed Lady crowned Queen of Heaven:

Rev. 12

“And a great sign appeared in heaven, a woman clothed with the sun, with the moon under her feet, and on her head a crown of twelve stars.”

The verses that follow show us the serpent, Satan the dragon making war with her ‘seed’, in fulfillment of the very FIRST prophesy in Genesis 3:15: “I will put enmities between thee and the woman, and thy seed and her seed: she shall crush thy head, and thou shalt lie in wait for her heel.”

*Are you having great trials and spiritual battles today?

GOOD!

It’s a sure sign you’re a child of Mary and the devil hates you because you’re ‘The Woman’s offspring’ through Christ her SON!

St.John called her ‘WOMAN‘ in his Gospel and he calls her ‘WOMAN‘ AGAIN in The Revelation: for SHE IS The Second EVE; the prophesied ‘WOMAN‘ that was to COME that would CRUSH the Serpent‘s HEAD when She said FIAT! YES! To God’s Redemptive Plan.

That’s why the devil HATES her so much, and that’s why souls that hate The Holy Catholic Faith very soon began to blaspheme MARY, Our Blessed Mother.
*But the verse JUST before this, tells us more:

“Then God’s temple in heaven was opened, and the ark of his covenant was seen within his temple; and there were flashes of lightning, loud noises, peals of thunder, an earthquake, and heavy hail.” 

Revelations 11:19

St. John first saw The Temple of God and The Ark of The Covenant, and immediately in the next verse he sees The Woman clothed with the SUN and crowned QUEEN of Heaven.

THE BLESSED VIRGIN MARY IS THE ARK of The COVENANT.

II.
 The Catechism

What exactly do we confess with the ancients in The Dogma of The Assumption of Mary?

1
 The Dogma which recognizes The Blessed Virgin Mary’s singular participation in her Son’s Resurrection by which she was taken up body and soul into heavenly glory, when the course of her earthly life was finished. (Catechism of The Catholic Church, Glossary: p. 867)

2   #966  “Finally the Immaculate Virgin, preserved free from all stain of original sin, when the course of her earthly life was finished, was taken up body and soul into heavenly glory, and exalted by the Lord as Queen over all things, so that she might be the more fully conformed to her Son, the Lord of lords and conqueror of sin and death. (Lumen Gentium 59; cf Pope Pius XII, Munificentissimus Deus). 

The Assumption of the Blessed Virgin is a singular participation in her Son’s Resurrection and an anticipation of the resurrection of other Christians:

“In giving birth you kept your virginity; in your Dormition you did not leave the world, O Mother of God, but were joined to the source of Life. You conceived the living God and, by your prayers, will deliver our souls from death.”

(Byzantine Liturgy, Tropariion-Feast of The Dormition, Aug.15th).
*So often those who try to refute The Holy Catholic Faith accuse The Holy Catholic Church of ‘inventing Doctrines and Dogmas.’

But here we see that The Eastern Churches confess this Dogma together with us in a very similar way, calling it ‘The Feast of The Dormition of The Blessed Virgin Mary.’

But is there further historical evidence that proves this Dogma that all Catholics are obliged- indeed REJOICE!- to receive?

III
.  The Assumption: Saints and Fathers.



*This longstanding Sacred Tradition of the belief of The Assumption can be found in the historical record in the writings of many Saints, most notably St. John Damascene, St. Andrew of Crete, St. Modestus of Jerusalem and St. Gregory of Tours. In the interest of time we will examine but a few today, that you might be strengthened and confirmed in The Holy Catholic Faith once delivered to The Saints.

1
.  325 A.D. – Eusebius of Caesarea 

Eusebius wrote a History of The Early Church. He wrote that not only was our Blessed Lady assumed into Heaven but that it had been reveled to her by The Holy Ghost afore hand.

He wrote:

The virgin Mary, mother of Jesus Christ, is taken up to her son in heaven, as some write had been revealed to her.”

(Chronological Tables Year 46 A.D. in some manuscripts).


2
.   262 A.D. – St. Gregory the Wonderworker.

Nearly a 100 years BEFORE Eusebius, The Early Church Historian, St. Gregory was preaching The Assumption:

“Come, then, you too, dearly beloved, and let us chant the melody which has been taught us by the inspired harp of David, and say, Arise, O Lord, into Your rest; You, and the ark of Your sanctuary. For the holy Virgin is in truth an ark, wrought with gold both within and without, that has received the whole treasury of the sanctuary. … Hearken, O daughter, and see, and incline your ear, and forget your own people and your father’s house; so shall the King greatly desire your beauty: for He is the Lord your God, and you shall worship Him. Hearken, O daughter, to the things which were prophesied beforetime of you, in order that you may also behold the things themselves with the eyes of understanding.” 

(Homily 1 on the Annunciation).
*In this homily or sermon by St. Gregory The Wonder-Worker, (AD 272) not only do we find The Early Church confessed The Assumption of Mary, but they also already had a THEOLOGY of Mary

(1). That She was The Ark of The Covenant and (2). That she was and is, Queen of Heaven.

He quotes two prophecies about Mary’s Assumption: One in which David tells the Messiah to “Arise” with His ark (Psalms 132:8), (which Gregory says is Mary), and a SECOND which is about the vision of the Queen of Heaven standing at the right hand of the Messiah (Psalms 45: 11). 

In preaching that Mary “arose” bodily and that she is now in heaven, body and soul, St. Gregory is one of the EARLIEST witnesses in the historical record to the belief in Mary’s Assumption. (3). A mere 500 years after Pentecost, The Holy Catholic Church was still preaching and confessing The Assumption of The Blessed Virgin Mary.

3. Bishop Theoteknos of Livias (c. 550650). 

“For Christ took His immaculate flesh from the immaculate flesh of Mary, and if He had prepared a place in heaven for the Apostles, how much more for His mother; if Enoch had been translated and Elijah had gone to heaven, how much more Mary, who like the moon in the midst of the stars shines forth and excels among the prophets and Apostles? For even though her God-bearing body tasted death, it did not undergo corruption, but was preserved incorrupt and undefiled and taken up into heaven with its pure and spotless soul.”

4. St. John Damascene (d. 749) writes this concerning the Assumption: 

St. Juvenal, Bishop of Jerusalem, at the Council of Chalcedon (451), made known to the Emperor Marcian and Pulcheria, who wished to possess the body of the Mother of God, that Mary died in the presence of the Apostles, but that her tomb, when opened upon the request of St. Thomas, was found empty; wherefrom the Apostles confessed that her   was taken up to heaven.” 


5. 
Liber Requiei Mariae – 200 A.D. – “And our Lord said to them: ‘Let them bring the body of Mary into the clouds.’ … And when they arrived together in Paradise, they placed the body of Mary beside the tree of life. And they brought her soul and placed it upon her body. And our Lord dismissed his angels to their places.” 

(Liber Requiei Mariae 89, as it appears in Shoemaker, Ancient Traditions of Mary’s Dormition and Assumption. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2002. p. 163-164).
*Dear Faithful, time does not permit us here to list more quotes from Saints Confessors and Doctors of The Church who joyfully confessed the glorious Assumption of The Blessed Virgin Mary; but these things we have written today that we might rejoice together with them in The Assumption of Our Blessed Lady.

JESUS has a MOMMA!

and He gave her to us from The Cross at His Most Sacred Passion to be our very OWN dear mother: and when her race on earth was finished and she fell asleep, The Lord Jesus-Who conquered death and IS The Resurrection and The Life, RAISED UP His Dear Mother into Heaven to be with Him forever, a foretaste of our OWN Resurrection-

and He crowned her!

Queen of Heaven!

Queen of Saints and Angels!

Where with Jesus and all The Saints and Angels she intercedes for us today! 
HAVE you THANKED her today, for saying ‘FIAT’ to Jesus that your soul might be saved?
Let’s do that right NOW! 

Pray with me, first in the words of the 

Sub Tuum Praesidium the most ancient known-prayer to Our Lady-(AD 200) and then an AVE:
+We fly to thy patronage, O Holy Mother of God; 

despise not our petitions in our necessities, 

but deliver us always from all dangers, 

O glorious and blessed Virgin.
Amen.

AVE
MARIA, gratia plena, Dominus tecum. Benedicta tu in mulieribus, et benedictus fructus ventris tui, Iesus. Sancta Maria, Mater Dei, ora pro nobis peccatoribus, nunc, et in hora mortis nostrae. Amen.
GLORIA PATRI, et Filio, et Spiritui Sancto. Sicut erat in principio, et nunc, et semper, et in saecula saeculorum. Amen.

Rejoicing in The Assumption of The Blessed  Virgin Mary.

Dear Faithful, you help us GREATLY when you SHARE this Articles. 

We thank each one of you and may The Lord bless you abundantly. Amen. 

Our Lady Of The Snows  

Our Lady Of The Snows  

 
Our Lady of the Snows.

August 5:
Our Lady of the Snows.
Improbable as it is for snow to fall during August, history tells of a snowfall that seemed more impossible, namely in Rome, Italy. August 5, 352, snow fell during the night in Rome.
There lived in the Eternal City a nobleman, John and his childless wife, who had been blessed with much of this world’s goods. They chose the Mother of God as the heir to their fortune, and at the suggestion of Pope Liberius, prayed that she might make known to them how to do this by a particular sign.
In answer, the Virgin Mother during the night of August 5, appeared to John and his wife and also to the Holy Father, Pope Liberius, directing them to build a church in her honor on the crown of the Esquiline Hill. And what would be the sign that John and his wife had requested?
“Snow will cover the crest of the hill.”

Snow rarely falls in Rome, but the flakes fell silently during that night, blanketing the peak of the historic hill. In the morning the news quickly spread and crowds gathered to throng up the hill and behold the white splendor. The snow had fallen in a particular pattern, showing the outline of the future church. When it became known that the snow was a sign from Mary, the people spontaneously added another to her long list of titles, Our Lady of the Snows.

The church built there is now known as Saint Mary Major. It is the focal point of devotion for many of Mary’s millions of children, one of the most popular churches in the world. There Mary has been pleased to secure various and many blessings as numerous and varied, as the flakes of snow that fell that August night.

The church built by John and his wife in honor of Our Lady of the Snows, restored and enlarged at various times was known by different names: the Basilica of Liberius, Saint Mary of the Crib because it enshrines relics of Christ’s Crib; lastly, Saint Mary Major, to distinguish it from the many other Roman churches dedicated to the Mother of God; Major, means Greater. There is an image revered as Our Lady of the Snows, which is believed to have been produced by St. Luke the Apostle.

Saint Mary Major is one of the four basilicas in which the pilgrims to Rome must pray in order to gain the indulgences of the Holy Year. Most fitting do we call Mary Our Lady of the Snows. The white blanket of that August night symbolizes Mary, pure as the driven snow; her blessings and graces, numerous and varied as the falling snowflakes.

Science tells us that every snowflake is different in form and make-up: size, outline, structure, ornamentation, are all without limit, infinite in wondrous beauty, startling complexity, perfect symmetry as they fleet, dancing down from the sky. What a wonderful figure of the blessings Mary obtains for us! Snow changes the face of the earth, painting even a field of mud with a white coat. The grace of God won through prayer to Mary, also changes the face of the earth. Snow preserves the heat of the earth, protects vegetation, supplies moisture with slow effectiveness.

Grace serves similar purposes: it preserves the warmth of God’s love in our hearts; it protects the soul from the chill of temptation and sin; it nourishes the soul with new life. We see a further symbolism in this feast. There are millions living in lands of ice and snow who have not come to the knowledge of Mary and her Divine Son. We might ask that with the actual snowflakes, she shower down upon them the graces of the True Faith.

In particular may that land where snow falls long and heavily, Russia, come to share in a fall of graces through prayer to her whom we honor on August fifth as “Our Lady of the Snows.”

Praying To Mary Is Idolatry? 

Praying To Mary Is Idolatry? 

In the course of my efforts to clarify and promote the moral premises that preserve the God-endowed right of liberty in the United States, I’ve often addressed issues that involve abandoning those premises. Among them are abortion, the denial and disparagement of the natural rights of the family and the rising persecution directed against people who strive to live according to Christ’s saying that obedience to His commandments is an imperative sign of love for Him:

“If anyone love me, he will keep my word, and my Father will love him, and we will come to him and make our abode with him” (John 14:23).


During my endeavors in this regard, I’ve worked with many fellow Christians, Catholic and non-Catholic. Though we stand firmly on common ground on the issue of American principle mentioned above, now and then our differences do make an appearance. This happened recently — sadly, not for the first time in my experience — regarding Catholic devotion to Mary, the mother of Jesus Christ. I felt moved to respond to the denigration of our devotion, as I have in the past. When I was running for political office, I did so against the counsel of political “consultants,” who always think it best, for electoral purposes, to avoid discussing such differences. But if I were willing to let such considerations stop me from sharing the Gospel, I would downplay all the issues of moral concern, since all are rooted in insights deeply connected with the truth God shared in and through Jesus Christ.

If the special grace of God in choosing Mary for His mother is not part of the good news of Christ’s coming, I don’t know what is. To speak with love against the denigration of her worthiness, with words thoughtfully informed by the Scripture and the heart of her son is, I believe, an aspect of devotion to Christ and God. Like the servants at the wedding feast in Cana, we understand that in Mary’s help we find a way to bring the miraculously transforming power of Christ into our lives. As Pope Saint John Paul II instructed, To honor Mary is to Go to Jesus.” With this in mind, I share the following Facebook user’s comment and my reply.

Facebook user’s comment:

I have not lost hope because my hope is in Christ and His mediatorial kingship. If your hope is that (Brett) Kavanaugh will be a good Supreme Court judge, your hope is misplaced. God is working all things for good, but His idea of good may be to pour out His wrath on America. I will pray to God for His kingdom to come in America, but I will not join with you. Praying to Mary is idolatry.

My reply:

Jesus said: “I am the resurrection and the life. Whoever believes in me, though he die, yet shall he live” (John 11:25). Do you doubt that Christ’s mother believed in Him? Though she stood at the foot of the Cross when fear overpowered all but a few of His closest disciples?

Do you doubt her faith and Christ’s reverence for her authority despite the fact that, at the wedding feast at Cana, she believed implicitly that He could and would perform a miracle at her behest, even after He made clear that it went against His sense of the occasion? If Christ, who is God, deferred to her wishes and did as she asked, why do you believe His Father does otherwise?

If the special grace of God in choosing Mary for His mother is not part of the good news of Christ’s coming, I don’t know what is.

Were the hosts or servants at the wedding feast idolatrous because they trusted in her relationship with Christ?

You speak of life as if it is a matter of time. But Christ says it is a matter of the relationship with Him — “I am the way, the truth and the life” (John 14:6). And you speak of death as if Christ has not already abolished it (2 Timothy 1:10). If, as Christ promised, the faith of the thief on the cross meant He ended that very day in Paradise, what makes you so sure Christ let His Mother, blessed among women, “see corruption” (Psalm 16:10)?

Would you treat your mother like that, if you had power to do otherwise? If Scripture does not convince you, doesn’t your own heart, which in faith is the heart of Christ, Mary’s loving son, protest against it? “Honor thy father and thy mother,” the Lord says. If we do so in the flesh, why do you reject the very idea that Christ, the Word who was with God and is God, would not honor Mary in spirit and in truth, and in the heart He brings into our very being when we accept Him as the being of our being in this life. As this worships Christ within us, how can it be idolatry?

Dr. Alan Keyes served as Assistant Secretary of State for International Organizations under President Ronald Reagan, and ran for president in 1996, 2000 and 2008. He holds a Ph.D. in government from Harvard, and writes at his website Loyal to Liberty.

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